How many people were like me when I was a student, and the historical figure I hated the most was Qin Shi Huang: how did I not burn all the books at that time, which made me study so hard.So I looked forward to growing up quickly, thinking that when I grew up, I would no longer have to study and write homework.
In fact, for human beings, learning is as important as breathing, it relies on elders to teach young people how to find and identify edible food, how to make weapons for hunting and even how to procreate.
This inherited learning behavior was not until the middle of the Warring States period in our country was proposed by Mencius and included by his disciples in Mencius, the gentleman has three music, but the king world does not exist Yan. Both parents, brothers without reason, a joy; worship is worthy of heaven, not to people, two joy; get the world's talents and education, three joy.” Here“Education” in combination with the context, it can be understood as“Teaching, education”, that is, the two concepts combined into one.
In today's society, more and more enterprises pay more attention to "training", for Chinese is a foreign word, which was first proposed by the modern American management scientist Taylor in his book "Scientific Management".
But as for the concept of "training", our ancestors in China included this concept in their collections as early as the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods, such as Xunzi, Laozi, Confucius, Han Feizi and so on.
In fact, the practice of training has been around for as long as humans have been undocumented, and, as it turns out, humans have been doing this since primitive times. In order to satisfy the need of psychological tracing to the source and perfect the missing part of human history due to the lack of written records, the ancient scholars created several ancient gods who taught the basic survival skills of human beings, to explain the rationality of this behavior of knowledge transmission. Like Adam and Evva in the Western Bible -- it seems that nothing has been accomplished except for love. Finally, there is a Prometheus, and the result is nothing good.
Another example is the legend in China, which includes the Wei clan, the Fengren clan, the Fuxi clan and the Shennong clan.
Having solved the problem of survival, did humans begin to use their clever brains to further highlight themselves as an evolutionary accident in the process of biological evolution?
Due to the large brain capacity and the mastery of production skills, productivity was greatly increased, and slowly surplus products and cultural sciences developed in production, at which time staff and educational institutions specializing in education appeared—what we call schools today.However, the first school in the world was not in China, it was in Egypt, and the Chinese school was born during the Shang Dynasty.
This continued into the spring and Autumn period (the turning point of China's slave and feudal societies) in the late Eastern Zhou dynasty, which ushered in the first great break in Chinese history, there was also the first peak in the history of culture. A large group of literati, while singing“Turn over the serf to sing”, while seizing the time to sort out their academic views and governance theory, so“A hundred schools of thought contending” appeared, and ordinary people also have the opportunity to enter the school, such as“Private Schools.”. The most representative among them are the Daoist school headed by OIGO, the Confucian school headed by Confucius, and the Legalist School headed by Han Feizi.
In addition to the above-mentioned schools, there are two people who have to say, he is Mozi and Lu Ban, Mozi is the founder of the Mojia school in the "Hundred Schools of Thought", thinker, educator; Lu Ban is the originator of Chinese architecture plus the originator of carpenters, according to today's thinking, Lu Ban's title should be inventor and scientist.
It can be considered here that during the Spring and Autumn Warring States period, Lu Ban officially brought the concept of "training" into full play - through purposeful teaching, he became the ancestor of a profession.As for the story of "Mozi saving Song", those who are interested may wish to Baidu and learn about it.
Unfortunately, it didn't last long that people could afford to go to school and study. After Qin Shi Huang unified the six kingdoms, the Burning of books and burying of scholars became a disaster in cultural history, this is Li Si's “No questions asked”, the speed with which the right to education is once again concentrated in the Ruling class, turning the privatisation of knowledge and education into a powerful tool for centralisation as soon as possible.
After Qin Shi Huang established the Qin Dynasty, he did two things: first, unify culture; Second, look for elixirs.
With the unification of culture and the privatization of knowledge by the Ruling class, class divisions in the course of Chinese history were further clarified through the interpretation of Hundred Schools of Thought during the spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, the division between education and training was not clear until the Han dynasty, when a man named Dong Zhongshu appeared.
During the period of Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty, he proposed "deposing hundreds of schools of thought and respecting Confucianism", and since then the concept of "emphasizing education and light skills" in the history of Chinese education has gradually penetrated into the hearts of the people, and other knowledge and skills outside of Confucian culture are regarded as "miscellaneous science" that does not do business, and the mainstream knowledge structure of society at that time was as follows:
The common people were further and further away from the court, unable to access what the Ruling class considered “Useful knowledge”. At the same time, people were unable to get an education. In history, people would make use of this situation to try to One Foot in Heaven and replace the Ruling class, such as Zhang Jiao at the end of the Eastern Han dynasty.
The formation of this class due to the division of knowledge reached its peak in the Wei, Jin and northern and Southern dynasties, when all kinds of social resources such as education and wealth were in the hands of a few people, even during one of the most chaotic periods in Chinese history, the Wei, Jin, and northern and Southern dynasties, no matter how the dynasties and national titles changed and replaced, I understood it as a war between the nobles, in addition to“Class internal struggle”, this kind of fight between one's own people can also be understood as“Class internal struggle”
After the chaotic period of Wei, Jin, southern and Northern Dynasties, the History of education in China character ushered in a new era in the Sui dynasty, the emergence of the “Imperial examination system.”. The original intention of the imperial examination system was to weaken the influence of the aristocratic families on the court, consolidate and strengthen the centralization of the central authority, and it was also a derivative of Confucianism, confucianism has been used as a tool of Ruling class for more than one thousand, five hundred years and continues into the 21st century.
The emergence of the "imperial examination system" caused education to move downward, changing the situation of Shi Dafu becoming officials, and the Sui Emperor improved the "imperial examination system" designed by his father, Emperor Wen of Sui Yang Jian, invented the Jin Shi Branch, and became a way for ordinary people to become officials.At the same time, because of the merits of Dong Zhongshu in the Han Dynasty, Confucianism also became more deeply rooted in the hearts of the people because of the dominance of the government at that time, while other "miscellaneous studies" were difficult to be recognized by the government and lacked soil for growth.At this point, ancient Chinese education has also become an education only for the inheritance of "Confucianism".
Where there are people, there are rivers and lakes, and where there are rivers and lakes, there are disputes. The emergence of the imperial examination system played a certain role in fair competition, however, in the Sui and Tang dynasties, the power was still concentrated in the hands of a few people due to the accumulation of the history of influential families, and this situation became more and more intense with the decentralization of imperial power. The children of the upper class, regardless of their moral ability, by virtue of family, born to be rulers, do not need to learn, they look down on teachers, respect“Family Law” and despise the teacher. So Han went online.
Against this background, Han Yu wrote an essay titled “Shi Shuo”, which supplemented and explained the word “Shi”, a more systematic interpretation of the word“Teacher” is used for“Teacher”, “Master”, that is, the person who teaches you knowledge and skills. I do not know if it is the role of this “Shi Shuo”, after that time when Han Yu led the vigorous ancient style movement, not only the teachers who taught in the rostrum, but also the teachers who passed on the miscellaneous studies, status and status have been greatly improved, let people re-establish a“Respect for teachers,” the faith, so there are a lot of classic stories sung so far.
Later generations on Han Yiyi and the Tang Dynasty's Liu Zongyuan, the Song Dynasty's Ouyang Xiu, Su Sanjie, Wang Anshi and Zeng Gong together known as the Tang and Song Eight Masters, they launched a more than two hundred years of ancient text movement had a very far-reaching impact on the education of later generations, by the time of the Song Dynasty, the rulers in the premise of respecting Kong and Confucianism, combined Buddhism, Taoism to form the school of science headed by Zhu Xi, and the Tang Dynasty has appeared in the Tang Dynasty to collect and store books academy into today's sense of educational college.In addition, in the Yuelu Academy in Changsha, Hunan Province, the academy motto "Loyalty and Filial Piety and Honesty Festival" was written by Zhu Fuzi.
At the same time, due to the rapid development of handicrafts during the Song Dynasty, commerce and trade at that time had an unprecedented prosperity in history, and a large number of handicraft workshops appeared, and had to let workshop owners find ways to recruit people and teach skills in the way of old guys bringing new guys, in fact, this is what we call "on-the-job training" today, more than 500 years earlier than the recorded on-the-job training in Europe, and the natural sciences that previously belonged to the non-mainstream were also recognized to a certain extent in the Song Dynasty. The development of science and technology reached the most advanced level in the world at that time.When it comes to the science and technology of the Song Dynasty, there is a person who has to mention - Shen Kuo, today you look up at the night sky, maybe you can still see the asteroid named after him.
Science, education, and the powerful Song dynasty, but because of political cowardice from the founding of the country that day, has been bullied by the northern minority regime, through the Southern Song and Northern Song dynasty two stages, having survived the Liao, Xixia and Jin dynasties, but not the Mongol horde, Chinese history ushered in its first period of complete non-han rule, it was also the largest dynasty in Chinese history, the Yuan dynasty.
Unfinished, to be continued...