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Patients with bronchial asthma should learn to self-manage

2022-09-16 06:45:06


Medical Federation, as a professional chronic disease management platform, since its inception, the use of the development prospects of the Internet, combined with AI and big data advantages, can effectively improve the treatment rate of chronic disease patients, during the World Asthma Day, the Medical Federation held an online famous doctor science popularization live broadcast and online free clinic activities, the Medical Federation is committed to providing long-term standardized specialty chronic disease management services for the majority of chronic disease patients, through no


Bronchial asthma is one of the common chronic diseases.According to statistics, the global asthma patients have reached 300 million, as of 2020, asthma is recognized as a medical problem in the world, still listed by the World Health Organization as one of the four major stubborn diseases in the disease, bronchial asthma is the world's second largest death and disability disease after cancer.Therefore, in patients with bronchial asthma, improving the self-management awareness of the disease is an effective prevention and treatment measure.

哮喘患者的自我管理主要包括以下几个方面:

一、正确认识支气管哮喘

Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways involving a variety of cells and cellular components.Clinical manifestations are recurrent wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, cough and other symptoms, often at night and in the early morning onset or aggravation, with the prolongation of the course of the disease can lead to a series of airway structural changes, long-term recurrence and infection can be complicated by chronic bronchitis, emphysema, bronchiectasis, interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary heart disease.

二、避免或减少接触支气管哮喘诱发因素

很多变应原和触发因素会导致支气管哮喘急性发作,需了解哪些变应原或触发因素(见下表)是引发自己支气管哮喘发作的诱发因素,并尽可能避免或减少接触这些诱发因素。

常见的支气管哮喘诱发因素

支气管哮喘发作时,支气管平滑肌收缩,导致支气管痉挛,炎症导致气道水肿以及粘液分泌增多等,均可造成气道口径缩小(称为支气管收缩);气道狭窄后,呼气和吸气均更加费力。

正常人气道与支气管哮喘患者的气道

三、坚持呼气流量峰值(PEF)监测,记录支气管哮喘日记

PEF是一种简单而实用的哮喘实时监测工具,能够客观判断支气管哮喘病情。推荐支气管哮喘患者每日早晚各做1次PEF测定,同时书写以PEF记录表为主、附加症状和用药情况的哮喘日记。通过PEF监测和记录哮喘日记,可有效地预防和减少支气管哮喘发作的次数,有助于医生正确评估哮喘严重程度、控制水平及患者对治疗的反应,总结和分析支气管哮喘发作与治疗的规律,并据此选择和调整药物治疗方案。

Fourth, standardize the use of drugs and follow up regularly

从本质上来讲,支气管哮喘是一种呼吸道的慢性炎症疾病,长期存在,因此需要长期的抗炎治疗和规范管理。此外,支气管哮喘的治疗应尽早开始,首选吸入疗法,要坚持长期、持续、规范、个体化治疗,切不可自行停药。

V. Identification and preliminary treatment of precursors of acute exacerbations of bronchial asthma

Most bronchial asthma exacerbations have different degrees of prodromal symptoms and manifestations before an acute attack, and the timely detection of the precursor manifestations of an acute attack of asthma and the adoption of corresponding treatment measures can reduce severe asthma exacerbations.

对于支气管哮喘急性发作先兆的识别,有两种方法进行判断:一种是依据症状,支气管哮喘急性发作的先兆症状有咳嗽、胸闷、气促等;第二种方法是依据PEF监测结果,如果患者的PEF值在近期内下降至正常预计值或个人最佳值的60%~80%或更低,需要警惕近期急性发作的风险。

支气管哮喘急性发作的急救措施:首先,自我调整,消除紧张情绪。找到最舒适体位(通常坐起来,身体微向前倾斜),呼吸大量的新鲜空气,必要时吸氧;迅速吸入快速缓解药物。如果症状比较严重,或者自行吸入缓解药物后症状仍然不能有效控制,应尽早前往医院寻求医疗帮助。

通过以上介绍不难看出,支气管哮喘患者的自我管理,对于哮喘的控制与预防是非常重要的。医联,作为专业的慢病管理平台,自成立以来,利用互联网的发展前景,结合AI和大数据优势,可以有效提升慢病患者的治疗率,在世界哮喘日期间,医联举办了线上名医科普直播及在线义诊的活动,医联致力于为广大慢病患者提供长期规范的专科慢病管理服务,通过不断完善线上医疗服务流程及渠道优势,不断提高支气管哮喘患者的生活质量。现在关注“医联健康”公众号,回复“义诊”关键词,即可参加免费义诊活动。