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A brief analysis of the impact of intelligent algorithms on the development of army tactics

2022-09-16 06:29:52


The "algorithm warfare" with intelligent algorithms as the main basis will be the general trend of future wars, and new superhuman combat capabilities can be formed by integrating artificial intelligence, machine learning, deep learning, autonomous technology, pattern recognition, computer vision technology, etc. into weapons and equipment, combat platforms, and logistics support systems.


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The law of the historical development of war tells people that all war phenomena are related to the military technology at that time and the weapons and equipment developed on this basis, and develop with the progress of military technology and weapons and equipment.The development of weapons and equipment will inevitably lead to changes in the nature of contract combat, and its nature and level determine the process and effect of the development of contract combat in practice.In the entire history of the development of contract combat, the technical level of weapons and equipment has been improved step by step, and the accumulation of stages has formed a new military technology group, which in turn has triggered tactical changes. Intelligent algorithms are a series of instructions expressed through computer programs or code, effectively implemented by building systems, and capable of operating in a variety of actions.The initial integration of intelligent algorithms and weapons and equipment has spawned the prototype of intelligent warfare, which will further promote the development of army contract tactics.



Intelligent algorithms greatly enhance combat capabilities

智能算法融入作战指挥体系,大幅提升战斗能力,主要表现在战场适应能力、态势感知能力以及跨域作战能力等方面。
(一)无人前置,战术空间适应能力增强
未来智能化战场上,要想更好地消灭敌人,就必须具备强大的战场适应能力以保存好自己。 以智能算法为主要依托的“算法战”将是未来战争的大趋势,通过将人工智能、机器学习、深度学习、自主技术、模式识别、计算机视觉技术等融入到武器装备、作战平台、后勤保障系统的方法,可以形成新的超人类作战能力。“人在环内”、“人在环上”以及“人不在环”是人类作为作战单元直接参与作战发展到真正无人化作战的三个阶段,通过智能算法不断创新人与机器的协作模式,人类最终将成为未来战争的环外“旁观者”。 “算法战”时代,人类操纵或干预智能化作战平台进行“非接触”式作战,不会产生战场恐惧,不会有疼痛感,没实际上的人员伤亡,可以适应缺氧、极寒、极热、高压甚至核、化、生等人类难以生存的极端战场环境。

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(二)数据支撑,战术侦察感知能力增强
“发现即摧毁”的未来战争新常态,要求以强大的态势感知能力作为支撑,先敌发现,先敌实施打击。 人工智能技术与大数据的相互融合,使得开放式模型算法、广泛兼容型数据库技术和分布并行式系统架构日趋成熟,成为支撑联合战场态势感知的技术群,对未来战争态势预测、规律洞察、辅助决策形成巨大推动作用。美“专家计划”开发的首个算法系统,目标是以先进算法优势完善自主化数据处理技术和智能化生成信息技术,提升无人机战场态势感知能力,其下一个目标是基于战场对抗条件下的态势感知,提升作战平台的自主认知能力,形成快速定位、精准识别、判断威胁程度的能力。 美国国防部高级研究计划局的“分布式作战管理”项目则可协助飞行员感知战场态势、自主生成作战建议,实现无人僚机协同作战。
(三)集智提效,跨域超限战斗能力增强
In the future, the battlefield will be cross-domain, networked, non-linear and so on. The requirements for command, decision-making, action and coordination are very high in the types of factors, the scope of space-time, and the rhythm of action, the traditional mode of combat based on human brain and organism can not adapt to it. “算法战”将人工智能、算法等先进技术与各领域致命性武器相结合,形成未来作战模式,保持跨域作战新优势。 随着跨域联合作战需求的不断增加,美军致力于依托智能化、信息化等技术优势,全面打破区域界限、消除领域隔阂、重组时空格局,将区域分散的作战人员、武器平台和指控系统有效整合,高效的智能算法系统是保障这些能力得以实现的技术支撑。 In the future, the battlefield of "algorithm warfare" will surely be a combination of wisdom and strength, and the embodiment of intelligence and justice. "Wisdom" will become the primary determinant of war victory or defeat beyond firepower and information power, and in future cross-domain operations, the effectiveness of "wisdom" will far exceed the role of concentrated firepower or force.

Intelligent algorithms greatly accelerate operational decision-making

作战指控体系嵌入智能算法,建立起自主性态势模型的认知启发型构架,通过机器学习、深度学习等先进智能算法,将简单的逻辑计算跃升至自主推理层面,大幅降低海量视频数据人力分析处理的负担,有效提升作战决策速度。
(一)数据处理智能,辅助决策高效
相较于人类大脑,以算法为依托的人工智能技术在速度、效率及可靠性方面都具有较大优势, By integrating advanced intelligent algorithms into the weapon platform, it realizes the efficient detection, classification and early warning calculation of massive pictures, sounds and videos, etc., efficiently forms high-quality, high-volume and high-accuracy military intelligence, and further processes through machine learning, deep learning and visual algorithms to achieve the purpose of efficiently assisting military decision-making. The first early case of "algorithm warfare" was the use of algorithms to intelligently process a large amount of UAV video information in the combat mission of the US military against the "Islamic State" to provide technical support for combat operations.At the beginning of December 2017, the US "Expert Program" project realized the initial deployment of the algorithm battlefield, focusing on the millions of hours of video images from the "Scan Eagle", MQ-9 "Death" and other unmanned aerial vehicle reconnaissance, independently identifying targets, the recognition accuracy rate has reached 80%, and the developed algorithm has been deployed in 5 to 6 locations of the US Africa Command and Central Command.

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(2) The growth rate of the OODA loop and the shortening of the combat cycle
In the construction process of the "algorithm warfare" data autonomous analysis system, through the use of different data types and the use of standardized analysis algorithms required by the application, the OODA loop time can be shortened, the data bandwidth can be reduced, the efficiency of data processing and data mining can be effectively improved, the purpose of eliminating the uncertainty of battlefield situational awareness can be achieved, and it plays a role in key operational fields such as intelligent decision-making, command coordination, intelligence analysis, electromagnetic network attack and defense, and combat method verification. With an efficient OODA ring, you can more autonomously, quickly, and irregularly implement observation, judgment, decision-making, and action, strive for the initiative, maintain an advantage, surprise, quickly seize the enemy's exposed weaknesses, and directly "kill" the enemy. In terms of command and control, efficient algorithms will shorten the combat cycle, realize task replanning, accelerate the pace of operations, and enhance operational flexibility.With the help of artificial intelligence technology and algorithm development software, the "Algorithm Warfare Cross-Functional Group" of the United States improves the efficiency of ODO in the initial stage and has a good effect of shortening the combat cycle.
(3) Deep learning integration, independent decision-making and efficiency
Algorithms are at the heart of artificial intelligence, accusation systems, and wargame deductions, and are key to accelerating intelligent command, coordination, and decision-making. Intelligent algorithms such as machine learning, transfer learning, and deep learning can improve the autonomous cognitive ability of battlefield situations and assist decision makers to quickly locate, identify, and judge the degree of threats.With the help of algorithms such as deep learning, the future "algorithm warfare" combat platform will be both proficient in computing and good at "calculation", and the ability to operate autonomously and make decisions will be greatly improved.The outstanding performance of "Alpha Dog" in the human-machine war is a prominent case of deep learning algorithms.The development project of the computer chip True North jointly developed by multiple departments in the United States adopts deep neural network technology that simulates the information processing mechanism of human brain neurons, and the image recognition and comprehensive sensory processing capabilities are greatly improved. 为了赋予无人机视频数据态势处理的自主性,降低人力分析压力,提升决策速度,美军开发了一套具有人工智能特征的深度学习模型,由目标确认、情景确认与威胁确认三个模型组成。

智能算法极大丰富战术手段

智能算法在军事领域的广泛运用,助推人机协作模式由“人在环内”不断向“人在环上”甚至“人不在环”层次演进,是催生新作战样式的内在动力,战术手段进一步更新换代。
(一)基于超限破阈攻击的集群式作战
Swarm operations, also known as "swarm-type" operations, or "cloud attacks," are operations in which an intelligent unmanned combat platform is used as the basic combat unit and artificial intelligence technology with algorithms as the core as the support to carry out "saturated" strikes against the same target of the enemy. The cluster combat system highlights the formation of efficient combat strength by replacing "quantity" with "quality", offsets the disadvantage of low combat effectiveness of individual combat units with quantitative superiority, and improves the system generation ability and the comprehensive group strike capability. With the development of algorithm-supported artificial intelligence technology and the continuous maturity of operational concepts, the future battlefield will be filled with a surprising number of highly dispersed, coordinated combat "clusters", under the coordinated command of intelligent systems, combat units are sometimes scattered and concealed, and sometimes aggregated to launch centripetal attacks.During World War II, the German submarine "wolf pack tactic" fully embodied the tactical idea of dynamic energy concentration and precise energy release, and the "swarms" dispersed after destroying the target, waiting for the next aggregate attack.

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(2) Mothership-type operations based on batch parallel attacks
Mothership combat is a combat method in which after the mother equipment is carried into an established and systematic unmanned combat platform enters the combat area, and each unmanned combat platform is based on the target set or temporarily designated before the war, or the nest is dispatched or partially forward, to carry out strike or reconnaissance tasks, and then return to the mother body to withdraw from the battlefield together.The intelligent algorithm provides effective and powerful technical support for the overall control of the sub-platform of the parent equipment, the planning of combat plans, and the implementation of operational coordination.The idea of mothership operations is to seek to completely destroy the enemy's combat system in a large number of parallel attacks. 未来战场上,传统的条块化的作战集群(队)责任区概念将进一步模糊淡化,各攻击子平台以就近、就便、就快的原则,自主、并行、精确地攻击目标群。 美国防部高级研究计划局 “小精灵”项目就是典型的“母舰式”作战,它运用C-130运输机在敌方防御射程外发射成群的小型无人机实施作战任务。
(三)基于人机互补攻击的协同式作战
人机协同作战是美军提出“第三次抵消战略”的技术支柱,将成为未来战争重点发展方向。随着人工智能技术和控制技术的持续发展,有人平台与无人作战平台联合协同作战的可能性不断增大。 在算法体系的构架下,可以实现有人与无人系统的优势互补,充分发挥有人系统对付伪装目标、执行随机任务、克服复杂干扰等方面的长处,以及无人系统成本低、数量多、机动性强、隐身性好的优势,让无人作战平台充当“先遣部队”,降低有人作战平台被敌摧毁的概率。有人作战平台“混”在数量众多的无人作战平台中,以“饱和”的方式突破敌防御体系,在敌来不及反应的情况下对敌发起致命一击。美军“阿凡达”项目就是以算法为核心技术支撑的有人与无人机混合编队作战体系。